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It should be highlighted that all the compound variants – bone-marrow stromal stem cell discount lansoprazole 30mg online, bone marrow stromal cell purchase lansoprazole 15mg on line, skeletal stem cell buy lansoprazole 30 mg amex, bone marrow-derived stromal cell – in S1 are assigned to the same term mesenchymal stem cell. The main dif- ference between the truncated forms in S1 and in S2 is that most trun- cated forms in S2 belong to most known types of cells as they are hy- peronyms of many other specific types (e. All the compounds from the resulting data have been further subclassified according to the process terms have gone through to result in alternative denominations. The greatest number of compounds has been found in S2 (47), and there- fore they have been described in the first place: ● 18 variants out of 52 (34%) reproduce compounds built from Greek or Latin roots in the English language (e. Different words are 1 In this study, truncation is understood as a formal means by which a lexematic unit is reduced to an acronym or an abbreviated form. Discussion In agreement with already cited authors such as Gaudin (1990), Sager (1990), Bowker and Hawkins (2006), neither terms nor their variants are context free. Specifically, variants in these registers are trig- gered by the intention of the writers and the level of knowledge of the recipients in each situation type. Based on the results extracted from our corpus it seems to be possible to infer regular patterns of variation and the specific motiva- tions behind term choice. Scientific popularization implies a reformulation pro- cess in which most Greco-Latin terms have at least an alternative Formation Patterns of Denominative Variants in Biomedicine 81 expression. In this sense, Gotti (2014: 19) states that popula- rization “does not alter the disciplinary content […] as much as its lan- guage, which needs to be remodeled to suit a new target audience”. The aim of experts and semi-experts writing for a lay audience is that recipients can continue reading without finding conceptual barriers and that they overall understand the message. In order to achieve their aim, they use above all paraphrases; secondly they use English coun- terparts which sometimes strictly follow the order of Greco-Latin roots of terms, and others are reduced forms. The description of variants in this study shows hints of the appropriateness of variants in certain settings characterized by different users and a particular purpose. The methodology carried out in this study can be applied to other specialized languages and the resulting variants can contribute to the improvement of terminology-oriented applications: 82 Paula De Santiago González specialized dictionaries, computer-assisted translations, etc. In Cabré, María Teresa / Feliu, Judit (eds) La ter- minología científico-técnica: reconocimiento, análisis y extrac- ción de información formal y semántica. Introduction In the last decades, several studies have been concerned with the analysis of the discourse of popularization (see for example Shinn/ Whitley 1985; Gregory/Miller 1998; Myers 1997, 2003; Ciapuscio 2003; Calsamiglia/Van Dijk 2004). Many scholars have been interest- ed in the language adopted by journalists and media professionals when dealing with scientific research articles and have focused in particular on the linguistic features of popularizing texts. This line of research has often analysed journalists’ products in comparison with the original research articles in scientific journals, pointing out several differences at various levels, such as textual, syntactic and rhetorical levels (Myers 1990, 1991, 1994; Calsamiglia 2003). Furthermore, par- ticular interest has been placed on those linguistic strategies enacted in order to enhance lay readers’ comprehension such as the use of meta- phors (Gülich 2003) and other expressive functions (e. As far as the definition of popularization is concerned, this pro- cess has often been identified as a ‘social operation’ aimed at commu- nicating lay versions of scientific knowledge among the public at large (Jacobi 1999; Calsamiglia/Van Dijk 2004). The discourse of populari- zation is a pluricode discourse in which text, images, stylesheets and colours semantically interact (Lemke 1998; Miller 1998) through a multimodal approach (Gotti 2013). As Bontems (2013: 103) argues, images are fundamental to the construction of scientific knowledge for a lay audience since they influence the reader’s sensitivity, thus 88 Silvia Cavalieri enhancing comprehension. The journalist is the mediator between science and its popularization and he/she chooses the right images and, in the case of complex technical ones, he/she adapts them to the supposed background knowledge of their public (Jacobi 1999; Bontems 2013). Even though in the last years many studies have claimed the im- portance of images in the field of science popularization (see among others Jacobi 1999; Bontems 2013; Dondero 2013; Lathene-Da Cunha 2013), little attention has been paid to the role of captions in the pro- cess of conveying specialist knowledge for a wider audience of non- specialists (Myers 1997). In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present work aims at providing an introductory description of captions in the discourse of medicine through the media, focusing in particular on three comparable corpora of news collected from the medicine sec- tions of French, English and Italian online magazines of science popu- larization. To be more specific, the study deals with the popularizing strategies used in the captions and their relation with the news and the image they refer to. Moreover, the use of captions is compared in the three languages to highlight similarities or differences in their use in order to see what strategies are typical of popularization discourse in different cultures As for the organization of the chapter, the first part will focus on the materials and methods used for the analysis, the second will deal with the findings deriving from an in-depth observation of corpus data and, in the final section, results will be discussed and conclusions will be drawn in the light of the previous analysis. Materials and Methods The present study has focused on scientific popularization discourse (Calsamiglia/Van Dijk 2004; Desmet 2005) aimed at transferring gen- eral medical information to a target public of educated laymen inter- ested in the latest science news. The articles chosen are texts adapted Popularizing Medical Discourse: The Role of Captions 89 to the editorial board policies by journalists, in which the presence of graphs, images and illustrations is pervasive. More specifically, the analysis was carried out on three comparable corpora of science news articles collected from the medicine sections of six online magazines of science popularization, namely Futura-Sciences and Science et ave- nir for the French corpus, Le Scienze and Focus for the Italian corpus, and Scientific American and Science Daily for the English corpus. As for the number of articles published, data show a sharp difference among the various online magazines and, in particular, between the Italian ones and the others. Moreover, it is worth noting a difference in the number of images used: English magazines tend to use one image per article while in French and Italian magazines we find an average of two images. The images found in the corpus are mainly of two types: 1) direct representations of the object described in the article, in which the similarity between the representamen and the object relies on simple qualities or properties (Lathene-Da Cunha 2013); 90 Silvia Cavalieri 2) diagrams and graphs, i. According to Myers (1997: 98) in scientific popularization articles “the text directs us to the picture, which leads us back to the caption, which leads to the picture, which leads back to the text”. So, first of all, we decided to consider the rela- tionship between the captions, the image and the article and we identi- fied what part of the article the caption anchors to. Thirdly, we analysed the most frequent popularizing strategies employed in the captions in order to enhance readers’ comprehension of the scientific knowledge reported following the framework pro- posed by Garzone (2006). Finally, a contrastive analysis of the use of captions in the three languages selected is provided and differences and similarities are outlined and discussed.
When patients appear to have “idiopathic” pancreatitis buy lansoprazole 15mg free shipping, that is cheap lansoprazole 15 mg visa, no gallstones are seen on ultrasonography and no other pre- disposing factor can be found buy 30mg lansoprazole with mastercard, biliary tract disease is still the most likely cause— either biliary sludge (microlithiasis) or sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. The pain often is relieved by sitting up and bending forward, and is exacerbated by food. Patients commonly experience nausea and vomiting that is precipitated by oral intake. They may have low-grade fever (if temperature is >101°F, one should suspect infection) and often are volume depleted because of the vomiting, inability to tolerate oral intake, and because the inflammatory process may cause third spac- ing with sequestration of large volumes of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. The most common test used to diagnose pancreatitis is an elevated serum amylase level. It is released from the inflamed pancreas within hours of the attack and remains elevated for 3 to 4 days. Amylase undergoes renal clearance, and after serum levels decline, its level remains elevated in the urine. Amylase is not specific to the pancreas, however, and can be elevated as a consequence of many other abdominal processes, such as gastrointestinal ischemia with infarction or perforation; even just the vomiting associated with pancreatitis can cause elevated amylase of salivary origin. Elevated serum lipase level, also seen in acute pancreatitis, is more specific than is amylase to pancreatic origin and remains elevated longer than does amylase. Treatment of pancreatitis is mainly supportive and includes “pancreatic rest,” that is, withholding food or liquids by mouth until symptoms subside and adequate narcotic analgesia, usually with meperidine. In patients with severe pancreatitis who sequester large volumes of fluid in their abdomen as pancreatic ascites, sometimes prodigious amounts of parenteral fluid replace- ment are necessary to maintain intravascular volume. Patients with adynamic ileus and abdominal distention or protracted vomiting may benefit from naso- gastric suction. When pain has largely subsided and the patient has bowel sounds, oral clear liquids can be started and the diet advanced as tolerated. Several criteria have been developed in an attempt to identify the 15% to 25% of patients who will have a more complicated course. When three or more of the following criteria are present, a severe course complicated by pan- creatic necrosis can be predicted by Ranson criteria (Table 14–1). The most common cause of early death in patients with pancreatitis is hypovolemic shock, which is multifactorial: third spacing and sequestration of large fluid volumes in the abdomen, as well as increased capillary permeability. Pancreatic complications include a phlegmon, which is a solid mass of inflamed pancreas, often with patchy areas of necrosis. Either necrosis or a phlegmon can become secondarily infected, resulting in pancreatic abscess. Abscesses typically develop 2 to 3 weeks after the onset of illness and should be suspected if there is fever or leukocytosis. Pancreatic necrosis and abscess are the leading causes of death in patients after the first week of illness. A pancreatic pseudo- cyst is a cystic collection of inflammatory fluid and pancreatic secretions, which unlike true cysts do not have an epithelial lining. Most pancreatic pseudocysts resolve spontaneously within 6 weeks, especially if they are smaller than 6 cm. However, if they are causing pain, are large or expanding, or become infected, they usually require drainage. Any of these local complications of pancreatitis should be suspected if persistent pain, fever, abdominal mass, or persistent hyperamylasemia occurs. Gallstones Gallstones usually form as a consequence of precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals in bile. When discovered incidentally, they can be followed without intervention, as only 10% of patients will develop any symptoms related to their stones within 10 years. When patients do develop symptoms because of a stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann pouch, the typical attack of biliary colic usually has a sudden onset, often pre- cipitated by a large or fatty meal, with severe steady pain in the right upper quadrant or epigastrium, lasting between 1 and 4 hours. They may have mild elevations of the alkaline phosphatase level and slight hyperbilirubinemia, but elevations of the bilirubin level over 3 g/dL suggest a common duct stone. The first diagnostic test in a patient with suspected gallstones usually is an ultra- sonogram. The test is noninvasive and very sensitive for detecting stones in the gallbladder as well as intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary duct dilation. This is apparent ultra- sonographically as gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid, and is characterized clinically as a persistent right upper quadrant abdominal pain, with fever and leukocytosis. Cultures of bile in the gallbladder often yield enteric flora such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. The positive test shows visualization of the liver by the isotope, but nonvisualization of the gallbladder may indicate an obstructed cystic duct. Treatment of acute cholecystitis usually involves making the patient npo (nil per os), intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and early cholecystectomy within 48 to 72 hours. Another complication of gallstones is cholangitis, which occurs when there is intermittent obstruction of the common bile duct, allowing reflux of bacteria up the biliary tree, followed by development of purulent infection behind the obstruction.
Individu- curriculum: Physical Chemistry of Biological al needs can be interwoven into the required Macromolecules order lansoprazole 30 mg with amex, Proteins & Nucleic Acids discount lansoprazole 15mg mastercard, curriculum lansoprazole 30mg on-line. Optimal background includes Methods in Molecular Biophysics, Comput- general chemistry, organic chemistry, physi- er Modeling of Biological Macromolecules, cal chemistry, two semesters of college-level and Organic Mechanisms in Biology. These physics, biochemistry or molecular biology, courses provide a conceptual framework for and calculus or a high-level math course. Students who have never by a training grant from the National Institutes taken courses in these areas are welcome, of Health. However, this support is limited to but not required, to take such courses dur- U. Tutorials and self-directed International applicants will be required to study provide alternative avenues for prepar- demonstrate fnancial support for their stud- ing for this evaluation. By sum- A list of the members of the staff and their mer of the frst year, a student will have joined research interests may be found in the a research group and embarked on thesis departmental statement on page 141. Beginning in the ffth semester, students meet annually with a faculty thesis review The department will admit well-qualifed stu- committee. Applicants Dissertation should have thorough training in general Completion of an original Investigation and biology, chemistry and physics, or to remove presentation of a dissertation are required. Degree How to Apply Requirements established by the Department Students must complete applications online of Cell Biology and the Doctor of Philosophy (www. Board, usually at the end of the second year The deadline for receipt of complete applica- of residence. Write a dissertation, embodying fndings will be invited to a Visiting Weekend to meet worthy of publication, and certifed to be a with faculty on both campuses, talk with stu- signifcant contribution to knowledge by at dents, and have a look around Baltimore. Program in Molecular Biophysics graduate students are supported for the frst two years 4. Present a fnal departmental oral exami- by a training grant from the National Institutes nation/seminar in the feld of the disserta- of Health. However, this support is limited to tion research certifed by from three to fve U. The department or program committee demonstrate fnancial support for their stud- must certify in writing that all departmental or ies and will be required to deposit funds cov- committee requirements have been fulflled. Core Courses If the funds are not deposited in a timely man- Students will generally fulfll the course ner, any offer of admission to the Program in requirements of the interdepartmental pro- Molecular Biophysics will be null and void. Members of the department who At their discretion, faculty members reserve work in the area of cell biology participate in the right to require students to take elective the joint program in Biochemistry, Cellular courses. Students are required to take understanding, diagnosis, treatment and four elective courses to further broaden their prevention of human diseases. Elective training in scientifc research and develop a courses may include courses at the School thorough knowledge of human biology and of Public Health and Homewood Campus. Elective course topics include bioorganic This program grew out of a need for gradu- chemistry, biophysical chemistry, human ate training at the interface between medicine anatomy, immunology, pathobiology, phar- and the traditional basic science disciplines. These laboratory rotations will be make discoveries in the laboratory that can approximately ten weeks long. At the end of be applied expeditiously to the diagnosis, the frst year, students will select a research treatment, and prevention of disease. New advisor from one of three rotation laborato- technology allows scientists to identify genet- ries and begin original research leading to ic and molecular defects causing or predis- their doctoral dissertation. The trainees in this pro- A University mandated Doctor of Philosophy gram are working precisely at this interface Board Oral examination must be completed by between science and medicine to contribute the end of the second year of study. Annual Students will work in well equipped labora- meetings are held until such time as the the- tories of approximately 125 program faculty sis committee believes the student is ready to located throughout the medical school cam- write their doctoral dissertation. These researchers are supported by tion is based on the student’s novel research; many shared facilities including microscopy, a public seminar of thesis work is a graduation molecular biology and protein chemistry. Requirements for Admission Financial Aid Applicants should have a bachelor degree with The program is supported by a combination undergraduate training in biology, inorganic of monies from the Lucille P. Cell biology and/or biochemistry are student is provided a stipend, health and recommended. The program covers admissions should be referred to the Offce of these benefts during the students’ frst year; the Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecu- in subsequent years the research advisor is lar Medicine, 1830 E. Complete a minimum of four years of reg- The work of this program extends over all istration as a full time, resident graduate stu- phases and dimensions of the development of dent. Demonstrate evidence of achievement and conceptual, cultural, and social problems. Write a dissertation, embodying fndings of medicine, science, and related felds of his- worthy of publication, and certifed to be a tory.
Timecourses were segmented to the level of movement repetitions and sub-movement phases cheap 30 mg lansoprazole amex. Conclusion: This preliminary study shows Tan Tock Seng Hospital 30 mg lansoprazole with amex, Rehabilitation Centre order lansoprazole 30mg with amex, Singapore, Singa- that adding wearable sensors to a dynamic orthosis has a potential pore for connecting therapy monitoring to treatment. Results: Altogeth- sity, Department of Rehabilitation, Toyoake, Japan, 5Fujita Health er, 36 patients were enrolled in the programme. Data from 27/36 University Nanakuri Sanatorium, Department of Rehabilitation, who completed the program were included for analysis. There were no adverse robotic device, low-foor treadmill, monitor for patients, naviga- events. It is thought that patient can walk without impairments after stroke with short-term sustainable gains. Discon- feeling negative effect of affected leg if we can get appropriate set- tinuation reasons in 25% of subjects were related to social reasons. However, it has not been demonstrated that gait pattern really change in a positive way. We conducted gait analysis for 3 consecutive and Interphases, Lecco, Italy, 2Politecnico di Milano, Electronics- level of swing assist. These Information and Bioengineering, Milano, Italy studies were approved by the Institutional Review Board and writ- ten informed consents were obtained from all patients. Results: Introduction/Background: This study presents the application of a