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Human data Postmarketing data indicate that B-cell lymphocytopenia generally lasting less than six months can occur in infants exposed to rituximab in-utero purchase 160mg super p-force oral jelly visa. Animal Data An embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study was performed on pregnant cynomolgus monkeys cheap 160 mg super p-force oral jelly fast delivery. Pregnant animals received rituximab via the intravenous route during early gestation (organogenesis period order 160 mg super p-force oral jelly amex; post-coitum days 20 through 50). Exposed offspring did not exhibit any teratogenic effects but did have decreased lymphoid tissue B cells. A subsequent pre-and postnatal reproductive toxicity study in cynomolgus monkeys was completed to assess developmental effects including the recovery of B cells and immune function in infants exposed to rituximab in utero. Animals were treated with a loading dose of 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg every day for 3 days, followed by weekly dosing with 0, 20, or 100 mg/kg dose. Regardless of the timing of treatment, decreased B cells and immunosuppression were noted in the offspring of rituximab- treated pregnant animals. The B-cell counts returned to normal levels, and immunologic function was restored within 6 months postpartum. However, Rituxan is secreted in the milk of lactating cynomolgus monkeys, and IgG is excreted in human milk. Published data suggest that antibodies in breast milk do not enter the neonatal and infant circulations in substantial amounts. The unknown risks to the infant from oral ingestion of Rituxan should be weighed against the known benefits of breastfeeding. Hypogammaglobulinemia has been observed in pediatric patients treated with Rituxan. The safety and effectiveness of Rituxan in pediatric patients have not been established. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. Cardiac adverse reactions, mostly supraventricular arrhythmias, occurred more frequently among elderly patients. Serious pulmonary adverse reactions were also more common among the elderly, including pneumonia and pneumonitis. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. In exploratory analyses defined by age, there was no observed benefit from the addition of Rituxan to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide among patients 70 years of age or older in Study 11 or in Study 12; there was also no observed benefit from the addition of Rituxan to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide among patients 65 years of age or older in Study 12 [See Clinical Studies (14. Patients 70 years or older received lower dose intensity of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide compared to younger patients, regardless of the addition of Rituxan. In Study 11, the dose intensity of Rituxan was similar in older and younger patients, however in Study 12 older patients received a lower dose intensity of Rituxan. The incidences of adverse reactions were similar between older and younger patients. The rates of serious adverse reactions, including serious infections, malignancies, and cardiovascular events were higher in older patients. No overall differences in efficacy were observed between patients that were 65 years old and over and younger patients. The overall incidence and rate of all serious adverse events was higher in patients 65 years old and over. The clinical study did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Rituximab is produced by mammalian cell (Chinese Hamster Ovary) suspension culture in a nutrient medium containing the antibiotic gentamicin. Rituxan is a sterile, clear, colorless, preservative-free liquid concentrate for intravenous administration. Rituxan is supplied at a concentration of 10 mg/mL in either 100 mg/10 mL or 500 mg/50 mL single-use vials. B-cell recovery began at approximately 6 months and median B-cell levels returned to normal by 12 months following completion of treatment. There were sustained and statistically significant reductions in both IgM and IgG serum levels observed from 5 through 11 months following rituximab administration; 14% of patients had IgM and/or IgG serum levels below the normal range. The majority of patients showed peripheral B-cell depletion for at least 6 months. A small proportion of patients (~4%) had prolonged peripheral B-cell depletion lasting more than 3 years after a single course of treatment. Total serum immunoglobulin levels, IgM, IgG, and IgA were reduced at 6 months with the greatest change observed in IgM. At Week 24 of the first course of Rituxan treatment, small proportions of patients experienced decreases in IgM (10%), IgG (2. By Month 12, the majority of patients (81%) showed signs of B-cell return with counts >10 cells/μL. Rituximab was detectable in the serum of patients 3 to 6 months after completion of treatment.
Tenofovir and entecavir are preferred because of Background their potency and minimal risk of resistance super p-force oral jelly 160mg on-line. If treatment is not offered to persons with compen- cations is highest and the rationale for treatment can be sated cirrhosis and low levels of viremia 160 mg super p-force oral jelly visa, they must made buy super p-force oral jelly 160 mg low cost. The only antivirals studied in pregnant women reduction in mortality with both drugs (6. Antiviral therapy was started at 28-32 weeks of 253 persons with decompensated cirrhosis, including 102 gestation in most of the studies. Antiviral therapy was discontinued at birth to 3 niﬁcantly lower in the treated group (22% vs. For pregnant women with immune-active hepati- tion in the Child-Pugh score and improved survival was tis B, treatment should be based on recommenda- 113 tions for nonpregnant women. In a study comparing compensated and virals are minimally excreted in breast milk and decompensated persons with cirrhosis treated with ente- are unlikely to cause significant toxicity. There are insufficient long-term safety data in sons with advanced decompensated cirrhosis may be at infants born to mothers who took antiviral agents 74 higher risk. C-section is not indicated owing to insufficient Future Research data to support benefit. As a result, drug labels recommend avoidance of breastfeeding when on these drugs. Several studies have investigated lamivudine occur at delivery, given that a combination of hepatitis 122-124 levels in breastfed infants. One study of 30 mother- B immunoglobulin and vaccination given within 12 infant pairs demonstrated that the lamivudine concentra- hours of birth has reduced the rate of perinatal transmis- tion in breastfed infants was only 3. Similar ﬁndings have ral drugs are pregnancy class C except for telbivudine been reported in studies looking at tenofovir and breast- (class B) and tenofovir (class B). In a small study of 5 women, the median amount of tenofovir ingested from breast milk was only 125 Evidence and Rationale 0. T heevidenceproﬁleissum m arizedinSupporting Rates of C-section, postpartum hemorrhage or creatine 119 127 Table 5. In 11 controlled studies (1,504 mother-infant kinase elevation were not increased with antiviral therapy. However, tenofovir is considered a ale for a strong recommendation against treatment in preg- preferred choice, owing to its antiviral potency, the available nant women at low risk of transmission is based on placing safety data of use during pregnancy, and concerns for resist- higher value on preventing unknown maternal and fetal ance with the other antiviral agents. In available stud- to prevent perinatal transmission, the exact viral load ies, antiviral therapy was started between weeks 28 and 32 threshold and the exact week within the third trimester of pregnancy. No studies have addressed the duration of at which to initiate therapy has not been fully estab- therapy (stopping at delivery vs. In addition, data on need to be monitored for ﬂares if antiviral therapy is dis- longitudinal follow-up of infants exposed to antivirals continued during pregnancy or early after delivery. The optimal tored every 3 months for at least 1 year for recurrent duration of oral antivirals in children is uncertain. Hepatitis B virus in the United States: infection, expo- sure, and immunity rates in a nationally representative survey. Ann Given the lack of evidence of beneﬁt in immune-tolerant Intern Med 2011;154:319-28. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 Future Research age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Well-conducted studies to assess beneﬁt versus ment of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Long-term follow-up of treated children is Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in adolescents and adults: a needed to validate the use of intermediate biochemical and systematic review to update the U. Preventive Services Task Force virological outcomes for clinically important outcomes. Line- arized hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core-related antigen Acknowledgment: This Practice Guideline was in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. Clin Microbiol Infect produced in collaboration with the Hepatitis B Sys- 2014;20:1173-1180. Updated deﬁnitions of healthy ranges for serum alanine amino- rate for nucleos(t)ide-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus adefovir dipivoxil for with Chronic Hepatitis B Infection. Lack of effect of antiviral therapy in nondividing hepatocyte cul- years after treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a. Side effects of long-term oral antiviral therapy for hepati- Hepat 2014;21:825-834.
It is important to consider the consistent with the goals and orientation of the treatment discount 160 mg super p-force oral jelly otc. Different parties in an intervention Although randomized clinical experiments can make an important contribution to the evidentiary base for treatment may have different goals for treatment order 160mg super p-force oral jelly overnight delivery. For example trusted 160mg super p-force oral jelly, clin- guidelines, a single experiment from one setting does not ical practitioners, clinical scientists, patients, family mem- provide sufﬁcient evidence of efﬁcacy. Replication across bers, purchasers, and third-party payors may each value multiple studies and multiple settings is desirable. For example, in efﬁcacy studies should ideally include valid measures of short-term, problem-focused treatments lend themselves life functioning such as social and occupational function- more readily to controlled experimentation than do longer- ing, family or couple functioning, subjective well-being, term interventions aimed at more multifaceted concerns. In evaluating treatment outcomes, panels ture may vary depending upon the ease with which the should consider attrition due to dropout or refusal. Paucity of by randomization and leading to experimental results that literature does not necessarily imply that an intervention is are confounded by individual differences. All things Therefore, good treatment guidelines allow for some ﬂex- being equal, treatments that have enduring effects follow- ibility in treatment selection to accommodate individual ing termination are to be preferred over those that do not. In addition to Finally, any study is the product of many subjective direct consequences of treatment such as symptom reduc- judgments concerning whom to treat, how to treat them, tion or disease prevention, treatments may have indirect and how to measure change. For example, a corrective surgical affect the study’s construct validity—the extent to which procedure may enhance self-esteem and improve social the experiment truly addresses the underlying clinical ques- functioning, or the choice of a behavioral rather than a tion. As a consequence, even a treatment that is well pharmacological treatment may enhance feelings of per- supported in randomized controlled experiments may turn December 2002 ● American Psychologist 1055 out to be of little value clinically if those studies have poor or linguistic group may not be equally applicable to pa- external validity. In the absence of relevant re- to evaluate all these considerations when developing treat- search, panels should be cautious about generalizing to ment guidelines. Good guidelines comment on evidence for the applicability of the treatment Clinical Utility to different cultural groups. Important components of research addressing the issue of the patient’s gender (a this dimension include the generalizability of the interven- social characteristic) and sex (a biological characteris- tion across settings and the feasibility of implementing the tic). Interventions that are of demonstrable efﬁcacy with intervention with various types of patients and in various male patients may not be applicable to female patients and settings. Interventions that are extent to which the intervention will be effective in the of demonstrable efﬁcacy with middle-aged patients may practice setting where it is to be applied, regardless of the not be equally applicable for children or geriatric patients. The evaluation of clinical utility involves the assess- of the treatment for different age groups. Many aspects of clinical utility are them- take into account research and clinical consensus on selves increasingly the focus of systematic evaluation and other relevant patient characteristics. Good effect of a treatment is robust and therefore will be repli- guidelines comment on evidence for the applicability of the cated even when details of the context are altered. Relevant treatment to individuals with differing characteristics that factors include patients’ characteristics, health care profes- are relevant to the success of the intervention. Such factors as the professional’s skill, experience, gender, Factors such as age, gender, language, and ethnicity can all language, and ethnic background can affect outcome in affect treatment outcomes. To the extent possible, guide- take into account the effect of the health care profes- lines take into account the appropriateness of the treatment sional’s training, skill, and experience on treatment for patients characterized by each of the factors considered outcome. It is plexity and idiosyncrasy of patients’ clinical presenta- recommended that guidelines take into account whether the tions, including severity, comorbidity, and external recommended treatment was originally implemented by stressors. Successful treatment of the individual may well take into account the effects on treatment outcome of require attention to each problem. Good guidelines provide interactions between the patient’s and the health care for the treatment of patients as they present themselves in professional’s characteristics, including but not limited real-world settings. Interventions sarily, be affected by differences in backgrounds or eth- that are of demonstrable efﬁcacy with one ethnic, cultural, nicities of the health care professional and the patient. A treatment with proven effectiveness in one type of setting Treatments may have adverse effects. Guideline panels should consider what training is a protocol, differing time frames for delivering treatment, required of the health care professional and whether it is and differing modes of delivering treatment (e. It may also be helpful for guidelines Feasibility to consider whether professionals might be reluctant to Feasibility refers to the extent to which a treatment can be deliver an intervention because the cost of completing it delivered to patients in the actual setting. Feasibility eval- exceeds the resources available, because the equipment is uation addresses such factors as the acceptability of the not available, or because it relies heavily on an incompat- intervention to potential patients, patients’ ability and will- ible treatment approach or theoretical orientation. When they do, costs need to considered sepa- of feasibility may also include consideration of the cost of rately from effectiveness and determined broadly. Scientiﬁc and clinical evidence of the effectiveness of There are many reasons why individual patients may prefer treatment and consideration of the costs of treatment are not to receive particular treatments, regardless of their conceptually distinct. Any integration of factors as pain, expense, duration, fear, side effects, ad- cost and effectiveness must be open and explicit. Patient choice may increase the clinical term costs to the patient, to the professional, and to the utility of a given intervention.
However super p-force oral jelly 160mg otc, a pilot study was conducted in the Hong Kong Eye Hospital and the Prince of Wales Hospital recently buy super p-force oral jelly 160 mg with visa, which showed that short-term use of topiramate super p-force oral jelly 160 mg generic, did not induce an asymptomatic angle narrowing. Therefore, it was suggested that topiramate induced secondary angle-closure glaucoma may be an all- or-none phenomenon. Anterior Chamber Iris Lens Pupil Cornea Iris Fluid Forms Here Angle Fluid Exits Here Fig. Aqueous humor flow Carbamazepine is also an anticonvulsive medication and a mood stabilizer and is primarily used in treating of epilepsy, bipolar disorders and trigeminal neuralgia. The anterior chamber depth measured by Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam , Oculus Optikgerate GmbH, Wetzlar,® Germany) was 1. Both eyes had edematous cornea, very shallow anterior chamber, iris bombe and mid-dilated pupil that were not reacting to light. The anterior chambers’ depth was deepened and patent iridotomies, mild-dilated pupil, clear lens and posterior pole with normal optic discs were observed. Non-steroidal agents associated with glaucoma Unlike corticosteroid agents, the list of non-steroidal agents associated with glaucoma is wide and diverse (Table 1). The largest single cause of glaucoma in these patients appears to be an atropine-like effect, eliciting pupillary dilatation. The pupillary dilatation seen in these cases may be enough to precipitate an attack of angle- closure glaucoma in patients with narrow angles. As an alternative, some agents have been documented to produce an idiopathic swelling of the lens, associated with angle closure glaucoma. Some agents directly obstruct the trabecular meshwork, such as the viscoelastic agents and silicone oil. These episodes were felt to reflect the anticholinergic effect of these agents on the eyes. Of the non-tricyclic drugs, fluoxetine (Prozac ) and mianserin hydrochloride (Bolvidon )® ® 15 have been documented to be associated with attacks of angle-closure glaucoma. These episodes do not involve the pupil and are not responding to cycloplegic agents. This observation has been confirmed by A-scan measurements of the eye during such an attack. It has always been difficult to separate the various risk factors to the patient undergoing general anesthesia. This effect is felt to be due to an increased extra-ocular muscle tone from these agents. The H1 antihistamines block the action of histamine on capillary permeability and vascular, bronchial, and other smooth muscles. Although the anticholinergic action is mild, orphenadrine citrate (Norgesic ), an H1® antihistamine, has been documented to precipitate an attack of angle-closure glaucoma. These agents exert only a weak response but should be approached with caution in the patient at risk for glaucoma. Salbutamol and ipratropium (used in combination for chronic obstructive airway) have also been documented to precipitate attacks of angle-closure glaucoma due to the anticholinergic effect of ipratropium in combination with the effect of salbutamol (a β2 adreno receptor agonist) on increrasing aqueous humor production. Therefore, these agents should be used with caution in21 patients at risk for such an attack of glaucoma. However, disopyramide phosphate (Norpace ) does appear to have some® anticholinergic activity and has indeed been documented to produce an attack of angle- closure glaucoma. It is not clear why this occurs, nor have any risk factors for this adverse effect, such as family history of glaucoma, been identified. In case of topical corticosteroid drops, using a lower potency steroid medication, such as the phosphate forms of prednisolone and dexamethasone, loteprednol etabonate or fluorometholone should be considered. Other etiologies of drug-induced angle- closure are treated similar to primary acute angle-closure glaucoma with topical beta- blockers, prostaglandin analogues, cholinergic agonists and often oral acetazolamide. Laser iridotomy can be performed to reverse pupillary block or to prevent further pupillary block. Laser Irididotomies can be performed as a preventive procedure in hepermetropic naophthalmic and microphthalmic eyes. Usually, trabeculectomy, a guarded filtration procedure, with or without intraoperative anti-metabolites, is the primary procedure. In cases of eyes with active neovascularization or inflammation, a glaucoma drainage implant may be used as the primary procedure. Ophthalmic evaluation is recommended for patients treated with long-term steroids especially with risk factors such as family history of primary open-angle glaucoma. Agents causing secondary angle-closure should be avoided in susceptible individuals as far as possible. Conclusion Drugs that cause or exacerbate open-angle glaucoma are mostly glucocorticoids.
Effect of concomitant artesunate administration and cytochrome P4502C8 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria super p-force oral jelly 160mg generic. Pharmacokinetics of artemether–lumefantrine and artesunate–amodiaquine in children in Kampala cheap 160 mg super p-force oral jelly free shipping, Uganda cheap 160 mg super p-force oral jelly visa. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of non-fxed and fxed combinations of artesunate and amodiaquine in Malaysian healthy normal volunteers. Pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in pregnant and postpartum women with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Population pharmacokinetics of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in pediatric patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic considerations of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in Kenyan adults with uncomplicated malaria receiving artesunate–amodiaquine combination therapy. The disposition of oral amodiaquine in Papua New Guinean children with falciparum malaria. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in women with Plasmodium vivax malaria during and after pregnancy. Anti-malarial drug safety information obtained through routine monitoring in a rural district of south-western Senegal. Safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies in Nigeria: a cohort event monitoring study. A randomized comparison of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine and artesunate–amodiaquine combined with primaquine for radical treatment of vivax malaria in Sumatera, Indonesia. Frequency of severe neutropenia associated with amodiaquine prophylaxis against malaria. Deux hepatites fulminantes survenues au cours d’un traitement curatif par l’association artesunate–amodiaquine. Electrocardiographic study in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria, treated with artesunate–amodiaquine or artemether–lumefantrine. Artesunate- and amodiaquine-associated extrapyramidal 5 reactions: a series of 49 cases in VigiBase. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria provides substantial protection against malaria in children already protected by an insecticide-treated bednet in Mali: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria provides substantial protection against malaria in children already protected by an insecticide- treated bednet in Burkina Faso: a randomised, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial. A trial of the effcacy, safety and impact on drug resistance of four drug regimens for seasonal intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in Senegalese children. The effect of dosing strategies in the therapeutic effcacy of artesunate-amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria; a meta- analysis of individual patient data. Use of weight-for-age-data to optimize tablet strength and dosing regimens for a new fxed-dose artesunate–amodiaquine combination for treating falciparum malaria. Structure and mechanism of action F H3C H3C Artemether is the methyl ether derivative ofH3C F F F dihydroartemisinin. It is two- to threefold less F N O O active than dihydroartemisinin, its active O O C O C O C F O O metabolite. The pharmacokinetics of oral artemether when given in the fxed-dose combination with lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria is shown in section A5. Artemether is a water-insoluble, lipid-soluble compound and is therefore given either as an oil-based intramuscular injection or orally. It is absorbed slowly and erratically after intramuscular administration in severe malaria (Figure A5. While dihydroartemisinin is responsible for most of the antimalarial action after oral administration, the concentrations of artemether parent compound predominate after intramuscular administration in severe A falciparum malaria. Artemether also undergoes auto-induction but to a lesser 5 extent than artemisinin. Both artemether and dihydroartemisinin are eliminated within 7 h of administration (3, 5–10). Individual concentration–time profles for artemether after the frst intramuscular dose of 3. Safety Adverse effects Artemether is generally very well tolerated after both oral and intramuscular administration. It has similar side-effects to other artemisinin derivatives, including hypersensitivity reactions (risk estimate, 1 in 3000), mild gastrointestinal disturbance, dizziness, reticulocytopenia, neutropenia and elevated liver enzyme activity. While studies in experimental animals show neurotoxicity after parenteral artemether, clinical, neurophysiological and pathological studies in humans have not shown similar fndings. Contraindications Artemether is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any artemisinin derivative. Cautions A marked increase in the concentration of artemether in the cerebrospinal fuid of patients with meningitis was observed, prompting researchers to advise caution in treating patients with signs of meningitis (2, 10, 11). Patients with acute renal failure have higher maximum concentrations, higher exposure, a lower volume of distribution and a longer elimination half-life of artemether than people without renal failure (6). Comparative pharmacokinetics of intramuscular artesunate and artemether in patients with severe falciparum malaria.
Seizures At the global level discount 160 mg super p-force oral jelly with visa, the total reported quantity of crack- peaked at 121 mt in 2006 discount super p-force oral jelly 160mg on line, then declined for three years cocaine seizures is negligible in comparison with seizures in a row buy super p-force oral jelly 160 mg otc, falling to less than half this level – 57 mt – in of cocaine base and cocaine salts. The decreasing trend was observed in the West to the fact that some countries do not report seizures of European countries that account for the biggest seizures crack-cocaine, but also because individual seizures of in Europe, though several other countries have regis- crack-cocaine, possibly made at street levels, tend to be tered increases. In Ireland, seizures peaked in 2007, and have also used is that corresponding to the year 2008, and is only included declined significantly since then. One pos- sible explanation could be that heightened law enforce- 25 ment efforts impacted on the availability of cocaine in the European cocaine market, and traffickers responded to this by selling the drug at reduced purities rather than 0 raising the bulk price. The purity-adjusted price – expressed in euros - declined between 2006 and Spain Portugal 2008, and appeared to stabilize in 2009. France United Kingdom** Italy Belgium When adjusted for inflation, the purity-adjusted retail Rest of Europe Netherlands* price in 2009, expressed in euros, was equal to (within 1%) that in 2005, prior to the increase in 2006. While The Iberian peninsula is an important point of entry for these data need to be interpreted with caution, it is plau- cocaine reaching continental Europe. Spain consistently sible that alternative cocaine trafficking methods and reports the highest cocaine seizures in Europe, though routes adopted by traffickers to counter more effective seizures fell from 50 mt in 2006 to 25 mt in 2009. In law enforcement efforts have corrected a short-term neighbouring Portugal, the decrease has been more pro- drop of cocaine availability in the European market. In relative terms, seizure trends across Europe in recent Africa years appear to fall broadly along a continuum ranging Cocaine seizures remained limited in Africa, amounting from strong declines close to the trafficking hubs that to less than 1 mt in 2009, down from 2. Although this quantity is very small Europe to strong increases in countries, notably further in comparison with the quantities likely to be trafficked east, that historically have not been associated with traf- in and via Africa, seizure data from other regions also ficking of cocaine in large amounts. When comparing point to a decreasing trend for Africa, notably West average seizures over 2005-2006 with 2008-2009, Africa, for cocaine trafficking from South America to marked declines (in both relative and absolute terms) Europe. Nevertheless, cocaine trafficking in West Africa were registered in Portugal, Spain, Belgium and the 26 persisted, and Africa, especially West Africa, remained Netherlands; more moderate declines were registered vulnerable to a resurgence. Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethio- in the United Kingdom and France, while seizures were pia, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, essentially stable in Italy and Germany. In 2009, China 300 reported seizures of 163 kg, including 112 kg in Hong 200 Kong, China. According to Chinese authorities, cocaine 100 was mainly smuggled from South America across the Pacific ocean to cities on China’s south-east coast. The increase was partly due to a large quantity of cocaine that was jettisoned in December The Asia-Pacific region continued to account for less 2009 close to the Eastern Samar province from a vessel than 1% of global cocaine seizures. Two other signs that cocaine trafficking might be making inroads significant cases resulted in the seizure of a total of 15. The size of the United of the decline may be explained by improved upstream States’ market – the single largest cocaine market for interception efforts as a result of improved sharing of decades – has been shrinking in recent years, mainly due intelligence with counterparts in South America. Cocaine trafficking and use have started to limited (a few studies conducted in North America, affect countries in the Oceania region (already showing South America, Europe and Australia) and any calcu- high annual cocaine use prevalence rates by interna- lated results must be treated with caution (and results tional standards), countries in western and southern are subject to change, whenever more reliable informa- Africa affected by the transit flow, and in some parts of tion becomes available). The best reading of existing Asia (some countries in the Near and Middle East as data and estimates suggests that some 440 mt of pure well as some emerging pockets in a few countries in the cocaine were consumed in 2009. Cocaine use in East Europe, in con- Of the 440 mt available for consumption, around 63% trast, is still limited. The volume of cocaine consumed were consumed in the Americas, 29% in Europe, 5% in in Europe has doubled over the last decade, even though Africa, 3% in Asia and less than 1% in Oceania. The data for the last few years show signs of stabilization at largest subregional markets were found in North Amer- the higher levels. These three subregions account for increased their efforts, traffickers continue to innovate, 63% of global cocaine consumption. The single largest seeking novel ways of getting their product to the con- cocaine market – despite strong declines in recent years sumer. Around 2004, South American traffickers began - continues to be the United States of America, with an to experiment with some new trafficking routes via West estimated consumption of 157 mt of cocaine, equivalent Africa. In a few years, they managed to undermine secu- to 36% of global consumption, which is still higher than rity and sow high-level corruption in a number of West the cocaine consumption of West and Central Europe. Recognizing the threat, the international community undertook a variety of interventions to Cocaine consumption in volume terms appears to have address this flow. The novelty aspect was lost, the politi- declined by more than 40% over the 1999-2009 period cal instability proved self-defeating, and some very large in the United States to some 157 mt (range: 133-211 seizures were made. By 2008, there was a remarkable mt), with most of the decline (more than a third) having decline in the number of both large maritime seizures taken place between 2006 and 2009. As compared to and the number of cocaine couriers detected flying from estimates for 1989, cocaine consumption in the United West Africa to Europe. Criminal intelligence work indi- States seems to be now some 70% lower (range: -63% cates that the flow may have declined, but it did not to -77%), in parts reflecting the increase in treatment stop. This raises the possibility that traffickers had and successes in prevention, while the latest decline over simply modified their techniques, finding new methods the 2006-2009 period was attributed more to reduced for bringing cocaine to Europe, including through West supply. Statistical data support this scenario: European cocaine seizures decreased from 121 mt in 2006 to 57 mt in 2009.
Details of any herbal product Registered manufacturers found to contain potentially are also legally obliged to harmful ingredients generic super p-force oral jelly 160 mg without prescription, or which monitor the safety of their interacts with conventional products once they are on medicines order super p-force oral jelly 160 mg without prescription, are posted on the market buy super p-force oral jelly 160 mg. A medicine may work well in the laboratory, but a clinical trial will fnd out if it also works well in people and is safe to use. Phase 1 trials usually involve healthy people, and are designed to fnd out Around 5,000 licences how the medicine works in the body, and are granted to whether side effects increase at higher medicines, doses. Phase 2 trials look at whether the medicine works in patients with a particular condition or disease and identify common short term side effects. Phase 3 trials gather further information on how well the medicine works and how safe it is, in the general population. The results inform the labelling and patient information for the medicine when it is marketed. Several hundred to several thousand people are often involved at this stage, depending on the type of trial. Devices are always tested for mechanical and/or electrical safety before they are used in/on people, but, unlike medicines, they are not automatically subject to a clinical trial. This is because it is often impractical and unnecessary to test them in this way and safety and performance can be based on laboratory tests. Whether a device is subject to a clinical trial will depend on the type of device, its intended use, and how ‘new’ or different it is. Inspections, reporting systems, and intelligence about illegal activity all have key roles. It is currently the world, detailing illness, investigations, being used to assess the safety of non- and treatment. Patients can opt out of steroidal infammatory drugs, such as allowing their records to be used in this aspirin and ibuprofen. It enables them to ensure that medicines in everyday use are acceptably safe and Medicines & Medical Devices Regulation 11 A patient’s view of the Yellow Card Scheme (reporting system for possible side effects related to medicines) ‘Patients get very worried about the side effects they experience, and they need to know if they are normal or not. When I took Roaccutane (for acne) I had excessively dry lips, eyes, and nose, and I had fare-ups of acne. Being able to report side effects through the Yellow Card Scheme puts you in control. It means that you can report directly without having to wait for a busy healthcare professional to do it. Patients might not want to bother Patients can use the Yellow Card Scheme for themselves, reporting side effects, but I think and on behalf of a child or adult in their care. The information goes back to pharmaceutical companies, Call 0808 100 3352 to report by phone, or go to www. It’s a quantum leap for patient involvement, and marks The Yellow Card Scheme the beginning of the way forward receives more than 20,000 and a sea change in attitude. Sometimes this means a product has to be recalled and taken out of the supply chain. The action taken is determined by the scale of the threat posed to the public’s health. Reports prompt investigations, which can result in the issue of warnings and alerts. Warnings (Alerts) can be issued about defective medicines, problems with devices, and side effects associated with medicines and blood and blood products. This followed a included Plavix tablets, changes to the prescribing review of the balance of Zyprexa tablets, Casodex indications or doses made risks and benefts of the tablets and Sensodyne for licensed medicines, few drug; in particular concerns toothpaste. These products medicines are withdrawn from relating to worldwide data included parallel-imported use. That is because most on spontaneously-reported and parallel-distributed work well and are acceptably cases of serious liver items. In 2007, lumiracoxib (Prexige), laboratories and the Agency a medicine used to treat painful laboratory to determine the symptoms of osteoarthritis was risks to the patient. Medicines & Medical Devices Regulation 15 Responding to concerns to warrant immediate action. Some of the products investigated included about devices pacemakers, powered wheelchairs, and blood sample collection tubes. It does not mean that • a requirement for the manufacturer to manufacturing standards have fallen or make appropriate changes in design or that devices have become less information, or safe, overall. Sometimes, patients and healthcare practitioners simply do not use a device or piece of equipment in the way in which the manufacturers intended. These were taken off the market and information posted on the website about the implant options for women considering breast implants. Anxious to prevent this happening again, the coroner asked if the labelling of the catheters could be revised to distinguish them more clearly. Medicines & Medical Devices Regulation 1717 These include antibiotics, slimming aids, anti-malarial pills, treatments for erectile problems, such as Viagra and Cialis, and recently, the cholesterol lowering medicine Lipitor.